Oracle Shutdown Concepts

Shut down the database to make operating system offline backups of all physical structures and to have modified static initialization parameters take effect when restarted.

SHUTDOWN [NORMAL | TRANSACTIONAL | IMMEDIATE | ABORT ]

SHUTDOWN NORMAL

Normal is the default shutdown mode.Normal database shutdown proceeds with the
following conditions:

• No new connections can be made.
• The Oracle server waits for all users to disconnect before completing the shutdown.
• Database and redo buffers are written to disk.
• Background processes are terminated, and the SGA is removed from memory.
• Oracle closes and dismounts the database before shutting down the instance.
• The next startup does not require an instance recovery.

SQL> shutdown

Database closed.

Database dismounted.

ORACLE instance shut down.

SQL>



SHUTDOWN TRANSACTIONAL

A transactional shutdown prevents clients from losing work. A transactional database

shutdown proceeds with the following conditions:

• No client can start a new transaction on this particular instance.
• A client is disconnected when the client ends the transaction that is in progress.
• When all transactions have finished, a shutdown occurs immediately.
• The next startup does not require an instance recovery.

SQL> shutdown transactional

Database closed.

Database dismounted.

ORACLE instance shut down.

SQL>

SHUTDOWN IMMEDIATE

Immediate database shutdown proceeds with the following conditions:

• Current SQL statements being processed by Oracle are not completed.
• The Oracle server does not wait for the users, who are currently connected to the database, to disconnect.
• Oracle rolls back active transactions and disconnects all connected users.
• Oracle closes and dismounts the database before shutting down the instance.
• The next startup does not require an instance recovery.

SQL> shutdown immediate

Database closed.

Database dismounted.

ORACLE instance shut down.

SQL>

SHUTDOWN ABORT

If no shutdown option works then database instance can be shutdown using abort option. Aborting an instance proceeds with the following conditions:

• Current SQL statements being processed by the Oracle server are immediately terminated.
• Oracle does not wait for users currently connected to the database to disconnect.
• Database and redo buffers are not written to disk.
• Uncommitted transactions are not rolled back.
• The instance is terminated without closing the files.
• The database is not closed or dismounted.
• The next startup requires instance recovery, which occurs automatically.

SQL> shutdown abort

ORACLE instance shut down.

SQL>

All shutdown options except ABORT are clean shutdown where no instance recovery is required. Shutdown abort is a dirty shutdown as it requires instance recovery before getting back up.

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